Many of the circuit components may fail due to the over voltage, overheating, over current or unnecessary change in voltage & current. For the over-current situations, the components can be protected by using fuses at specific positions. Similarly, for overheating, heat sinks, and fans are used to push the excess heat away from the unwanted area. Although switching the load on and off is a common practice in the large-scale power distribution facilities however in some situations, the switching off/on may result in generating a transient condition leading to disturbance in the system’s stability.
For more information on Transients, refer to our blog on Electrical Transients in Power Systems. If this grabs your interest, check it out and let us know through your feedback.
This disturbance causes the exceed in the insulation levels of the equipment i.e. demeaning their insulation effect over time. This is where the snubber circuits come in to play. A snubber circuit is a recognized approach to lessen the effect of the switching transients to maintain the reliability of the power system’s gear and keep them functional for the longer run.
A snubber is a circuit that acts as a protection by limiting or stopping (snub) voltage spikes i.e. switching voltage amplitude and its rate of rise, therefore reducing the total power dissipation. It operates by clamping the voltage spikes but does not alter the ring frequency of the system.
When this circuit consisting of a resistor, capacitor, fuse, and a surge arrestor is made to work with a desired device, it absorbs the voltage rise and normalizes the disturbance in its waveform. Such circuits are best in removing transient voltages and in smoothing resonances and reflections even prior to their chance of building up.
The abnormalities or disturbance in the voltages also known as the Transient Recovery Voltages (TRV), have many reasons including:
- Insulation damages in the system.
- An immediate interruption of the circuit breaker on a transmission line.
- A lightning strike.
- A sudden change in the loading of the system.
- Flashovers (Arc Flash).
- Transformer Failures.
- Immediate tripping of machinery.
Switching Waveforms for Snubber Circuit Design
Before jumping right into the snubber circuit’s design, it is essential to understand the waveform of the power circuits. These waveforms provide us with motivation and more importantly a pattern to understand the use of snubbers and information regarding its design.
Many different devices of the daily use have different circuits. Fortunately, all of them have a common class or common waveform associated with them. This classification allows us the ease to design a snubber circuit for a group of devises that holds the same characteristics rather than collecting data from every device.
Although a snubber circuit basically consists of a resistor and capacitor but designing it is one of the most complex tasks in circuit design given the requirement of a deep and firm knowledge of the circuit’s foundation. However, after reading this, you may have a slight idea of how to design a good snubber circuit of a desired device.
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Snubber Circuit Design
The design of a snubber circuit consists of a capacitor in series along with a resistor connected parallel with a thyristor. When the Voltage is applied initially the snubber circuit behaves as a short circuit therefore the voltage across the device in nil.
The voltage across the capacitor increases gradually but at a slow rate so that dv/dt (rate of voltage change) across the thyristor stays in the desired range. Prior to switching on the thyristor, the capacitor is charged to the fullest and as soon as the thyristor is turned on it discharges through the silicon-controlled diode (SCR).
This discharge current is then limited with the Resistor (R) connected in series with the capacitor © in order to keep current’s value and its rate of change (di/dt) in the safe boundary.
Capacitors & Resistor selection
The Capacitors of the snubber circuit are usually subjected to high peaks of currents and rate of change of voltages (dv/dt). A conventional snubber circuit has to meet two major requirements.
- The stored energy in the snubber capacitor is to be greater than the energy in the inductance of the circuit.
- The time constant of the snubber circuit is 10% of the on time expected i.e. small as compared to the shortest on time.
For the resistor of the snubber circuit to be effective in this ringing frequency, the capacitor is used to minimize the dissipation at frequency switching. The perfect design is to select the impedance of the capacitor same as that of the resistor at ringing frequency.
Methodology of Snubber Circuit Analysis
The analysis of the snubber circuit study is done in 3 major steps:
Quantizing the Transient
Frequency Response (Downstream of the Faulty Area)
Snubber Circuit Parameters
Click here to read the Methodology of Snubber Circuit Analysis in detail.
Necessity of Using the Snubber Circuit Analysis
As discussed previously in the same blog that immediate tripping of the equipment results in the sudden change of impedance to a high value, this situation allows a small current to flow through the device which induces a high voltage across it. The faster rate of change in current (di/dt) has the very similar effect too. Such situations require an element like the snubber circuit to perform in the long run.
The protection of the heavy equipment in the power system sector is one of the most crucial application of the snubber circuit. If you are interested to find out the importance of snubber circuit protection in a Transformer, refer to our blog about Why Snubber Circuits are Required for Transformer Protection?
Snubber Circuits are responsible for the following functions:
- Reduce the voltages in on/off state of the equipment.
- Keeping the rate of change of current & voltage to an optimum value in the transients.
- To nullify the surges in a power system.
- Protection of sensitive equipment to perform in the long run.
Expected Outcomes of the Snubber Circuit Analysis
The concerned protective devices or any circuit breaker and even the downstream system is crucially evaluated for “ The unwanted worst case scenario “ condition of transients and is made more inert towards tackling such situations through a counteractive recommended action plan by the Snubber Circuit analysis.
Summing up the entire discussion, these major points are to be expected from a snubber circuit analysis:
- Resonance possibility to be reduced between the downstream system and transients.
- The surges and transients to be tackled to a safe level prior reaching the downstream equipment.
- Less maintenance to be required for the equipment i.e. prolonged life.
- Overall performance % reliability of the system to improve.
After going through this technical blog, you should have an idea regarding the importance of this snubber circuit study in power systems.
How to detect worst case transients through simulations?
Why to reduce switching transients to a minimum level?
How to reduce equipment damage and improve system reliability?
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About The Author
Abdur Rehman is a professional electrical engineer with more than eight years of experience working with equipment from 208V to 115kV in both the Utility and Industrial & Commercial space. He has a particular focus on Power Systems Protection & Engineering Studies.
Abdur Rehman is the CEO and co-founder of allumiax.com and creator of GeneralPAC by AllumiaX. He has been actively involved in various roles in the IEEE Seattle Section, IEEE PES Seattle, IEEE Region 6, and IEEE MGA.