Why Snubber Circuits are Required for Transformer Protection?
Switching Transients or Transient Recovery Voltages may occur in certain situations and events occurring frequently in normal operations of a MV or HV industrial or commercial Power System. They may not be fatal in their first occurrence but prolonged exposure to transients will reduce lifespan of power system equipment. They may also disturb the stability of the power system putting the entire installation at a risk of shutdown or failure of certain equipment.
A snubber circuit is a proven way of reducing these transients and ensuring the protection of individual equipment and the wider system. Therefore, snubbers find their applications in many areas in a power system, in most cases becoming an indispensable component of it.
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What are Snubber Circuits?
Snubber circuits consist of a combination of:
1. A capacitor
4. And a surge arrestor
What Does a Snubber Circuit Do?
Broadly speaking, when you connect a snubber to a device of choice, it can absorb voltage spikes and normalize any abnormality or disturbance in the voltage waveform. They are most effective in mitigating fast-rising transient voltages and in attenuating reflections and resonances before they have a chance to build up. They are also employed to reduce the frequency of an electrical disturbance.
There are several reasons due to which transient recovery voltages (TRV) and power frequency over-voltages (PFOV) may arise in a power system.
Application of Snubber circuits
One may segregate the applications of snubbers into two broad categories:
- Applications in Power electronics
- Applications for the protection in power system
Snubber Circuits for the Protection of Power Transformers
Transformers being an integral part of the power system are susceptible to such transient voltages and disturbances. In a case where these transient recovery voltages and disturbances come close to the basic insulation level (BIL) of the transformer, if for a short time and within the permissible level, they will not be fatal at their first occurrence but repeated occurrences will damage the insulation and windings overtime and eventually cause transformer failure leading to damage and loss of costly equipment.
In some situations, voltage transients may be significantly higher than the BIL of the transformer where their occurrence will immediately disturb the stability of the system causing more circuit breakers to trip along the system and escalating the fault.
Snubbers for Protection of other Power System Equipment
With Circuit breakers, transmission lines, generators, large motors and reactors, they are used in parallel with surge arrestors to keep voltage transients within a safe level.
Read here to find out why it is important to perform transient recovery voltage studies to correctly predict the transient voltage levels.
Let us know if you have any queries regarding this topic and do provide us with your feedback in the comments.
AllumiaX, LLC is one of the leading providers of Power System Studies in the northwest. Our matchless services and expertise focus on providing adequate analysis on Arc Flash, Transient Stability, Load Flow, Snubber Circuit, Short Circuit, Coordination, Ground Grid, and Power Quality.
About The Author
Abdur Rehman is a professional electrical engineer with more than eight years of experience working with equipment from 208V to 115kV in both the Utility and Industrial & Commercial space. He has a particular focus on Power Systems Protection & Engineering Studies.
Abdur Rehman is the CEO and co-founder of allumiax.com and creator of GeneralPAC by AllumiaX. He has been actively involved in various roles in the IEEE Seattle Section, IEEE PES Seattle, IEEE Region 6, and IEEE MGA.